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Learn Electronics

Electronic Devices and Circuits


Subjects' Notes from Learn Electronics mainly focuses on core concepts, and fundamentals. The notes helps the practicing engineers who wish to update and to be up to date in Electronics.

Each section of the notes can be read as 'standalone' or can be read in conjunction with other chapters. To possible extent, the authors ensured to avoid any interdependencies among different sections. However, in few cases the dependency may be unavoidable. In that case, to possible extent, the authors tried to give the appropriate references, footnotes etc.

Each section starts with simple description including physical picture of the mentioned components' behavior. After the introduction, the discussion leads to the essential attributes, behavior pattern of the components, devices, or circuits. In case of circuits, the fundamental analysis of the device(s) is made. The reader is taken step-by-step from basic concepts to the devices, circuits, models, and electronic systems.

The Basics

Electronics is a branch of science that deals with the phenomena and properties of electronics moving through semiconductors or insulators. However, Electronics and Electronics circuits work in conjunction with other areas such as Mechanics, Electric, or Electromagnetic segments.

In primitive form, Electronics deal two set of components – (1) Passive components - the components that are incapable of controlling current by means of another signal. (2) Active components - the components that are capable of controlling flow of current by means of other signals. Resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and diodes fall under the former category. Bipolar transistors, Field Effect Transistors, Operational Amplifiers, and Logic gates including Digital Integrated Circuits fall under Active category.

Below are the few examples
Sl. No Component Category Description
1 Resistor Passive Passes current through it in proportion to voltage – Ohm’s law
2 Capacitor Passive Stores charge as per Electro static force of attraction – Coulomb’s law
3 Inductor Passive Stores the energy in the form of Electromagnetic way and releases electrical charge through current
4 Diode Passive Diodes are semiconductor devices come with various variants and functionalities. Frequently used diode is a simple P-N junction diode for rectification i.e. to convert Alternate current to Direct current
5 Transistor Active The name Transistor is derive from two words – (1) Transfer, and (2) Resistor. In Transistors, when operated in ‘active region’, the signal transfers from low resistance (Forward bias) to the high resistance (Reverse bias).
6 Operational Amplifier Active A high gain, and high input impedance amplifier that plays vital role in analog circuits and analog computers. OP AMP 741 is the most popular Operational Amplifier
7 Logic Gate Active Gate is a conditional circuit that gives an output when the set of inputs agree with a set of values. Gates are further classified into Basic Gates and Universal Gates
8 Flip flop Active In simplest possible terms, A Flip flop is a one bit digital storage device that either can save 1 (flip) or 0 (flop).